Trade Contracts

Copyright © 2002-2014 Joseph Zaritski. All Rights Reserved.


All international transactions are conducted according to the terms and conditions negotiated between you and your buyer. By negotiating terms you secure the deal, minimize risks and protect your company in case of possible trade disputes, claims and/or legal actions. Usually terms of trade are stipulated in the trade contract and clearly indicate your and the buyer's responsibilities.

There are no standards regulating trade contracts as such. You'll find that sometimes it may be just a one-page document and sometimes - a very complicated 10+ pages booklet including several appendices, additional conditions, etc. In some cases a contract can even be formed based on words alone. It really depends on the goods you are selling, your relationship with the buyer and your personal preferences. Also, in different jurisdictions, there may be different requirements that must be met for a contract to be effective according to its terms.

In order to be effective and to promote certainty in your business relationship with your buyer, it is a good idea to provide for the following details of your deal in any trade contract:

  • Date of Contract
  • Seller's and Buyer's Names
  • Product Name
  • Product Description
  • Packing
  • Quantity
  • Unit Price
  • Terms of Delivery (Incoterms)
  • Terms of Payment
  • Delivery Date
  • Validity

The contract should be signed by all parties directly involved in the contract. For example, if some responsibilities under the contract fall to a middleman, agent or other third party, this party should sign the contract together with you and the buyer.


I would like to bring your attention to the fact that your quote, which is written on the company letterhead and encloses all the above terms would generally become binding on you if it was accepted by the buyer in writing or simply marked "Accepted", signed and forwarded back to you.

You have to be very accurate when issuing a quotation and you should always include a "Validity" condition. For example, "This quotation is valid for a period of XX days from the above date".

Typos, errors and omissions of words may occur in the preparation of quotation. In practice, most buyers will unconditionally accept a revision in the event of an error and omission in the quotation. However, some buyers would take the error as is, if it is to their advantage and would force you to negotiate a more favourable price and/or conditions.

As a precautionary measure, it is worthwhile adding the acronym E.&O.E. stated for "Errors and Omissions Excepted"to your quotations to disclaim final responsibility for typographical errors and unintentional omissions.

Essential Terms

The trade terms are pretty straightforward and I will just make a few brief comments in their regards.

Seller's and Buyer's Names

Always stipulate the full legal name of your company. For example: "Australian Export Company Pty. Ltd." or "Australian Export Company Pty. Ltd. trading as Aussie Products" in the case where the negotiations were conducted under the trading name. Also, you are required under the Corporations Act to quote your ACN or ABN on all documents.

Check the name of your buyer's company, especially when dealing with a foreign company for the first time. Usually you would be able to do it online through the country business register. Otherwise contact Austrade in the buyer's country or the buyer's country embassy in Australia.

Unit Price

Price stipulated in the contract must cover all expenses and risks as well as allow for the profit. At the end of the day, you are trading to earn some money.

Terms of Delivery (Incoterms)

Terms of Delivery must indicate the point of destination and should refer to the Incoterms. For example, "CIF Hamburg Incoterms 2010". Terms of Delivery are specifically explained in the International Commercial Terms tutorial.

Payment Terms

It is important to specify the terms of payment and payment procedure in detail as well as to stipulate all documents necessary to be presented for the payment to occur. Commonly, these details are specified in the appendix or supplement to the contract. In this case, under Payment Terms you should include, for example, "Irrevocable Confirmed Letter of Credit at sight in accordance with Supplement No. 1 hereto which is an integral part of the present contract".

For more information please refer to our International Payments and Export Credit Insurance tutorial.

Delivery Date

I always recommend to indicate the delivery time as a reference to a certain date stipulated in the contract. It may be the date of the contract, but more appropriate the date of the receipt of the confirmation of the letter of credit. For example, "the goods must be delivered no later than X days after the date of the receipt of the confirmation of the letter of credit by the Seller."

You should check the shipment frequency with the shipping company or with your freight forwarder before negotiating the delivery date and allow for possible delays. Usually major shipping lines would have shipments to most destinations occurring weekly.

Additional Terms

The terms and conditions specified below are not necessary to enclose in a contract, but I would strongly recommend you to do so to avoid uncertainties and minimise your risks.

Claims clause

Claims are common in International Trade. In fact, there are people who make a living out of claims and you have to be aware of that. By including a claim clause in the contract, you may be able to avoid costly litigation in the event of a dispute.

Example "Claims" clause

"1. Any claim relating to either the quality or quantity of the goods delivered by the Seller to the Buyer in accordance with the present contract must be submitted by the Buyer to the Seller no later than X days from the date of delivery of the goods indicated in the transport document. All claims must be submitted in writing and include originals of any documentation upon which the claim is based (including, but not limited to documentation issued by independent inspectors, Chamber of Commerce, authorised Government agencies, etc.)

2. If the Buyer does not submit a claim in accordance with paragraph 1 within the time stipulated in paragraph 1, then the Buyer is deemed to have received the correct quantity and quality of goods and the Buyer expressly waivers any right to make a claim in relation to the quantity or quality of the delivered goods.

3. The amount of any claim made pursuant to paragraph 1 must not exceed the contract value of the claimed goods."

If the payment terms were agreed as a deferred payment you may enclose the following paragraph to the Claims clause.

"4. Any claim in respect of quality or quantity of the goods being the subject of the present contract pursuant to paragraph 1 does not entitle the Buyer to fully or partially reject payment of an Invoice rendered by the Seller in accordance with the present contract in respect of the claimed goods.

Arbitration Clause

Trade disputes and claims may be settled in different manners. It is better to settle a claim amicably by negotiations outside arbitration or a court.

Dealing with a buyer from some Asian, South American or former Soviet Union countries, you may quite often be offered to settle a claim in the country where the dispute has arisen. You should unconditionally decline such offers. In countries with a high level of corruption your buyer may have connections, powerful friends or relatives, who can affect the arbitration decision.

The ICC International Court of Arbitration recommends that all parties wishing to have recourse to ICC arbitration include the following standard clause in their contracts:

"All disputes arising out of or in connection with the present contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules in the International Court of Arbitration in Paris."

When dealing with non-English speaking buyers it is appropriate to specify the language of the arbitration in the arbitration clause.

In addition to that I recommend including the following:
"The decision made by the Court of Arbitration is final and binding upon all Parties."

Be aware that the law in some countries may lay down certain requirements in respect of arbitration clauses. Always consult a lawyer before finalising the arbitration clause.

Force Majeure Clause

Force Majeure literally means "greater force". "Force Majeure" clauses excuse you or the buyer from performing the contract obligations if the failure is caused by conditions beyond your or the buyer's control. "Force Majeure" clauses are usually applicable to performance failures caused by:

  • natural disasters or other "Acts Of God" (earthquakes, hurricanes, floods)
  • wars, riots or other major upheaval
  • Government restrictions
  • performance failures of parties outside the control of the contracting party (subcontractors, suppliers and/or carriers)

It is important to remember that "Force Majeure" clauses are intended to excuse a party only if the failure to perform could not be avoided by the exercise of due care by that party.

Example "Force Majeure" Clause

Neither Party shall be liable or responsible for any failure or delay in performance under the present Contract if such failure or delay is caused by Act of God, Government restrictions (including the denial or cancellation of any export or other necessary license), riots, civil commotions, wars, insurrections and/or any other cause beyond the reasonable control of the Party whose performance is affected.

The Party experiencing the difficulty to meet the obligations under the present contract due to the causes beyond its control shall give the other Party prompt written notice, with full details following the occurrence of the cause relied upon. Dates by which performance obligations are scheduled to be met will be extended for a period of time equal to the time lost due to any delay so caused."

Other Terms

Additional terms and conditions depend on the agreements reached between you and the buyer. They may include, for example:

"1. The Import Licence, if required, is the Buyer's responsibility. If the Buyer fails to obtain the Import Licence within reasonable time, the Seller has the right to terminate the present contract.

Under no circumstances will the Seller incur any losses caused by the Buyer's failure to obtain the Import Licence.

2. All amendments and supplements to the present contract are integral parts of the present contract and become effective after signing by Parties.

3. After signing of the present contract all previous negotiations between Parties are superseded.

4. Neither Party shall assign its rights and obligations under the present contract to a third party without written consent of the other Party.

5. Melbourne (Australia) is considered to be the place of signing of the present contract."

And so on.

Other Important Issues

Plain English

Always use clear, simple and straightforward language in your trade contracts. Avoid using poetic and artistic expressions, idioms, slang and too many abbreviations. These will confuse the buyer and can create misunderstandings.

Units of Measurement

A unit of measurement like the ton may refer to the metric ton (2204.6 lbs or 1000 kg), short ton (2000 lbs or 907 kg), or long ton (2240 lbs or 1016 kg). You must clearly differentiate units of measurement to avoid problems.


Most international transactions are conducted in U.S. currency. If $US is the currency of your contract, you will lose money in the event of $AU appreciation, and, on the contrary, will receive extra money in the case of $AU devaluation. 1-2% should be added to the sum of contract to cover the exchange rates risks. To avoid these risks you can also negotiate with the buyer to deal in Australian currency, instead of U.S. funds.

Interpretation or Translation

Sometimes buyers may require signing a bi-lingual contract. In this case, the accuracy of business translation is crucial. Varied use of terminology in different countries can have an entirely different meaning and cause costly disputes.

Signing of the Contract

If the contract contains more than one page, I recommend you sign each page separately and require your buyer to do the same.

Preparation of the Trade Contract

You have to be sure that all terms and conditions to be included in the contract are negotiated and agreed with your buyer before you start preparing a contract. If you feel that there are any uncertainties and/or misunderstanding, you should contact the buyer and clarify the terms, which are not undoubtedly understood.

Trade contracts should be prepared or at least reviewed by a lawyer specialising in International Trade. It will cost you some money; some times it may cost a lot of money depending on the complicity of the contract. However, it still would be a fraction of the amount of the goods you are selling and can save you a fortune in the case of a dispute and legal action.

Start Exporting Today
Current Buyers Enquiries
From: Australia
I am interested in a quote for sea freight forwarding.
Details below:
- 40' GP
- from Ningbo, China
- to Sydney Australia
- delivery to Castle Hill via trailer
- commodity, cardboard toys
- approx 3000 units
- approx 7.29 tonnes
- approx value $20,000-$25,000
From: Bangladesh
This is Ravin Business manager of Arcadian International. We urgently need a 40 ft container of Navelian Oranges to be imported to Bangladesh. However, we are looking at to import 4/5 container of Oranges every month from Australia.
From: Australia
We are in search of Beef and offal for export to existing customers in Hong Kong.
From: Tuvalu
Do you export salted beef in brine in pails, how many kilo's per pail, how much per to ship a container load 20ft from your location to Funafuti, Tuvalu.
From: Malaysia
I would like to enquire with regards to exporting various frozen seafood to Malaysia, preferably CIF. I would like to know
1) MOQ
2) pricings
3) payment terms
From: Pakistan
We are interested in importing the Kabuli Chickpeas from Australia to Pakistan.

8 mm, 7&8MM Kabuli Chickpeas Grade 1 MD Bagged 50 kg bags per mt C&F Karachi, Pakistan.
We are interested in Importing Valencia Oranges/ Mandarins from Australia. Our requirements are 19 Kg pack CIF Chennai. India. The Counts are 72 - 80 - 88 Our Plan is to import 5 to 10 40 ft.containers for one month, Please quote a very competitive rate for longstanding business.
From: Egypt
Hello Sir,
I am interested in your product and would like you to send me your price list so that we can have an assessment and place an order once the quality is good.
From: China
We, are Tianjin China based food importer and wholesaler, would like to
engage in purchasing regular containerised shipments.

Products interested frozen or chilled:

Whole chicken
chicken feet,
chicken wings,
chicken parts, etc

Could you please quote us the following:

1. CIF price in AUD to Tianjin port
2. Monthly supply min a container a month
3. Payment terms
4. The origin of chicken ( only buying Australian chicken)
From: Cambodia
I would like to import some of the nut which are almond, walnut, pecan, pistachio, brazil nut, macadamia and other dried fruit. Hence, can you send me the product ranges list and prices please!. or any other related information.
From: Viet Nam
I am currently living in Sydney
My family have Import-Export company in Vietnam
Currently, we have import Rolled Oat from Australian as we are Oats wholesale in Vietnam
Also, we are main supplier to Big C Supermarket in Vietnam
Now, we would like to import Walnut from your company
Please help us with the very first time traded with your company
From: HK
We are looking at 2 loads of In-shell Pistachios. Please advise if you are available supply at present? We need
Specs: 30-32 & 28-30, yield + 47%.
Mechanical Open, Natural Open and closed.
Please quote CNF HK for above all from 2013 crop and 2014 crop.
Appreciate your quick reply!
From: Australia
I would appreciate if you could provide me an estimate of shipping each 20ft and 40ft containers to Chittagong port Bangladesh ex Melbourne (Truganina) at your earliest convenience. Please provide the breakdown of all the costs associated to the shipment except truck loading cost which will be covered by the factory.
From: India
I would like to inquire on the possibilities of exporting Avocado Oil to India from your refineries / farm as I understand there is a growing demand in India and people are keen to make use of avocado in their day today use.

I would like to have some details like the volume that will be available initially to export, price structures for the avocado oil, legal requirements and other information that may be needed to start up a conversation. Should the things are feasible, I would like be a strategic partner to export avocado oil to India and with my potential contacts, I hope to spread the business as much as possible.
From: Australia
We would like to ship books internationally in bulk, store them, and then forward them to customers. Can you assist with this? Main markets would be the UK and US.
From: Indonesia
I am looking for registered black angus calves (3-5 months old) to breed in my small farm and import it to Kuala Namu int`l airport (north sumatera).
From: Pakistan
I am looking to import Ash wood into Pakistan. Can you share any what products you have in stock at this point?
From: India
Good day,
I'm Bismilla from India. I need to know does your company export live sheep and goat to India, what are the basic requirement to place order for livestock, what will be the price and lastly is there any of your distributor in India if yes please provide details.
From: Uk
I am looking for a Australian WAGU supplier.
Are you able to supply to the UK?
From: Australia
I have an inquiry about the price of Kangaroo meat.
We want to test the market with a 20'FCL.
Are you able to give me a FOB per MT price?
From: Australia
I am interesting in exporting seafood product to Lebanon can please provide details and price list, I would like to ACT on this ASAP
From: China
Hi, I am representing a China-base company. We are planning to import oat from Australia, and produce related products in China. What I am looking for includes: prices of buying oats and transportation, companies or farms that have such business, law or protocols, etc.
From: Australia
I would like to export almonds to India. Could you please let me know:
1.What all different varieties are available with their respective prices.
2. How can I get the samples of each variety.
From: australia
Need to discuss movement of book boxes between Japan & Australia. I require a quote including insurance and other costs.
From: Australia
Looking for the best beers in Australia to export to China
From: China
We are beef deep processing company, with factories locating in some central parts of China.

We are searching some reliable beef suppliers from AU.

We are interested to have further contact with you.
From: Philippines
Enquiring about your wild about fruit and wild child range to be exported to Philippine. We would like to get a quote CIF, minimum orders and unit cost.
From: Australia
I have contact in Laos that would like to import frozen Kangaroo Leg Rum on boneless.Would you plaese advice me as to the price of the meat per kilo and costs to export small container to Laos.
From: India
I have gone through your website and seen your Flaxseed Oil Products that you manufacture. I would like to market your product in India since it is very much related to health of human being.
I would like to know your interest in selling your product to India if your production capacity is more than you cater to domestic market.
Awaiting for your kind response.
From: Australia
I am the representative of Methi Ltd. Company which specializes in selling many kinds of seeds in Vietnam country in bulk quantity. Our company is doing business effectively for this field. Our agents are all over the country. We are having reputation as well as branded, so I am writing to enquire if you have the best quality of AUSTRALIA WALNUTS that I want to import in bulk quantity. By the way, I will be in Australia from 11th Dec, 2014 to 26th Dec, 2014. Could I visit your company and take a look at your products’ samples? I’m looking forward to having a long-term cooperation with you, Awaiting your reply ASAP.
From: Vietnam
We are looking for supplier astralia beef to vietnam market with high quantity
please, advised if you can provide us.
From: Australia
Hi Michael,
I was wondering if you could help me out or point me in the right direction. I am looking to have a 20' container load per month of (large) mid-wings and chicken feet.

I currently have pricing for the chicken feet @ AUD$1.08/kg FAS. I am still waiting on another supplier for the mid-wings but would prefer they come from the same place.
From: China
Enquiry chicken feet export to Taiwan. How much per ton for 27 ton.
From: Australia
Hi, i wanted to export kangaroo and crocodile meat to turkey,if you do can you tell me how much we are looking to send 2tonns each every month.

I am interested in importing non-perishable health food products from Australia to Malaysia. Can you kindly assist with the enquiry below

1) Do you provide customs services both in Australia and Malaysia, including advice on import/export duty/license etc and if so what are the charges?
2) What is the minimum quantity to be shipped and cost(from Melbourne or Sydney)?
3) What is the leadtime?
From: vietnam
interested in container prices for sheep, lamb and goat offal. mainly interested in heads and testes. fob melbourne. want to import and distribute in vietnam
From: qatar
we need to import feed barley grains in bulk ,we expect alocal tender for about 52000 mt ton of barley feed or more in coming days, we need to know your capability of supplying such quantity and rates CIF Doha port. we need to clarify to us the procedure of supplying and nature of deal before ,and after tender awarding .
From: south africa
Looking for females 8 and two males camels to breed.
From: Australia
Hi, I would like to enquiry about the price of Forage grain export to Taiwan.
From: China
I am writing to enquire your available products for export to China. (Both branded or OEM)
We are the representative of our client to import a full container load of the skincare products for their retails stores in China. We are really interested in your company and have been told that you are one of the biggest supplier in Australia.

Could you kindly provide me your most updated export price list, catalogue, terms of trade, minimum order for OEM and advise your turnaround timeframe etc. Also, it would be greatly appreciated if you could let me what export documents are required.

My company is located in South Brisbane, and would be happy to have a chat with you on the phone to discuss further. If you have any questions, please let me know and I look forward to hear back from you.
From: japan
I am interested in importing frozen lamb and beef into Japan from Australia through air cargo systems. Thus i was hoping there could be a meeting set up for us (as soon as possible) to discuss the further business.
From: Australia and Vanuatu
I need to supply our client with chicken wings to Vanuatu. I will need frozen wings by the 20 foot container. Can you please assist as this will be ongoing.
From: australia
Dear sir/madam
we are interested to import live cattle,goat and lamb in Bangladesh.
From: China
I need the quote of different kind of pistachio nut per ton.My company need about 10 ton.
Please reply me by email as soon as you can.
Your friendly,
From: Sri Lanka
We like to import juice bottels from Australia.We would like to know the price and conditions of your co.
From: Australia
I am looking for a quote for sending a 20' container of UHT Milk cartons from Melbourne to New Delhi, India. Are you able to assist please with the freight rates and insurance quote?
From: Australia
We are planning to export walnuts to IRAN and we are wondering to know if you can give us some information as well as final price guide per Kilo or tonne .
From: Hong Kong
I found your details through the Export61 website.
I am representing a buyer whom would like to import Australian carcass beef into Guangzhou China.

My client supplies beef to the restaurant industry in Southern China and has a facility to butcher and distribute.

We have the possibility to purchase one 20ft container of medium quality beef carcass per month for the next 12 months.

I am hoping you are interested in this opportunity and are able to send a quotation including all export costs and sea freight to port of Shenzehn.
From: India
Hi i would like to know to price rough estimate to transport cheek peas, cotton,barely or any other grain from Dubbo NSW region to Sydney port .

And if you can get me separate quote from Sydney pot to Port in India Bhavnagar port.
From: India
We are in liquor trade in India and we plant to shift primarily into Wine marketing & Distribution. We wish to import Table Wines on a regular basis into India. Please let us know of the details of the products that you can supply along with some very aggressive pricing.
From: Spain
I am an International Trade Agent. I request you to send me a quotation of the below listed products, that I require for buyers in the mentioned countries.

Please also include:
a) Delivery time from receipt of purchase order to receipt of your shipment
b) Your terms of payment
c) Commission and terms for trade agent

Shenzhen, China
First trial order will be 2, 40ft containers

Beef omasum- 2, 40ft containers per month
Beef offals- 2, 40ft containers per month
Beef honeycomb- 2, 40ft containers per month
Beef four quarters- 2, 40ft containers per month
Beef Hind quarters- 2, 40ft containers per month
Beef Shin shanks- 2, 40ft containers per month

All meat products to be frozen
Plant should be authorised to export directly to China
From: australia
We are seeking to purchase chicken feet for export our market are Viet Nam. It would be greatly appreciated if prices can be offer for this product.
From: Australia
I would like to export wheat, barley, lentils, and chickpeas(kabuli) to India. Can you please send me the prices(FOB and CNF).
From: Australia
I would like to export Standard white wheat to India. Please let me know how much these items would cost me to export(FOB and CNF).
From: PNG/Aus
Hi am after quote for 12,000kgs (1 x 20ft container) of frozen chicken wings including freight charges to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Am looking to finalise an order by mid April. Thank you.
From: Cameroon
We are Registered Importer of Canned food & beverages in the Republic of Cameroon, we buy in bulk order and interested to partner with supplier to sell their product canned food and beverages in Cemac Zone,we therefore
wish to have your Canned food list and Its price for our study and place
our order, we understand your products are of good quality and have the necessary document that will permit the sale of your products in our region.
Kind send us your price details for our study.
From: India
We are from India and we run a flour mill for grinding wheat. We would like to import wheat from Australia and we would like to know the delivery rate at our Port in Tuticorin Port, Tamilnadu, India.
From: UAE
Hi Alan, just wondering if you can supply 400,000 MT of hard milling wheat from good old OZ to a Dubai Company which is financially solid please? They need 100,000 MT in 12 weeks for Ramadan delivered to Middle East Country.
From: Australia
Looking to buy chick peas for export to Pakistan. Could you please send me the price list?
From: Turkmenistan
We are traders from Turkmenistan. We are interested in goat and sheep meat supply from Australia.
From: Iran
I am writing to inquire about Barley.

We are an importer in Iran, and currently we are looking for an Australian supplier/producer which could supply us 40,000 mt of Barley. The shipping destination would be Port of Bandar Abbass, Iran.

I would be grateful if you give us your offer or let us know if you had further inquiries.
From: australia
i am looking for beef offal and frozen beef to china. We need around 20 ton -60 ton daily.
From: Australia
We are interested to import large quantities of IQF (Individually Quick Frozen) fresh Australian Abalone.

We would be obliged if you would give us a quotation per kilogram CIF Mawei Fuzhou, China.

Please confirm if your factory has the export licence to China. Below are the different quality types we require :

o IQF Greenlip Abalone First Grade (351g+)

o IQF Greenlip Abalone 1-2/Ib (230g+)

o IQF Greenlip Abalone 2-4/Ib (115g+)

o IQF Greenlip Abalone 6-8/Ib (62g+)

o IQF Blacklip Abalone 1-2 Ib (230g+)

o IQF Blacklip Abalone 2-3/Ib (150g+)

o IQF Blacklip Abalone 3-4/Ib (115g+)

o IQF Blacklip Abalone 6-8/Ib (62g+)

Please provide the prices and availability of quantity and minimum order that you can provide.
From: Australia
I like to enquire your total door to door cost for Sea freight - 20Ft cargo container from Shenzen to Sydney? Also, do you do half load containers?
From: Australia
I'm interested in exporting your Manuka Honey from Australia to China.
Could you provide me your export price list?
From: Australia.
I'd like to ship out (export) a small shipment of 10,000 Litre (bottled) wines to India next month. Kindly provide T&C's and quote for the above.
From: Pakistan
We are interested to import sheep in Lahore city of Punjab (Pakistan) at least up to September 2015 . Could you please inform me:
1) minimum & maximum limit of these live animals you can send
2) their health status
3) approximate price & cost of shipping( eg for any specific number of sheep) and thus aggregated total expanses
From: Kuwait
Please let us know if can you transport livestock to Kuwait or other Persian Gulf countries?
Australian Export Online @export61
Quick Export Stats
Australian mango growers produced more than 40,000 tonnes of fruit in 2012-13 and exported 4842 tonnes of that to mango lovers all over the world.
In fiscal year 2012-13, Australia's total trade with China was valued at $A 129.5 billion (just under 24% of our total trade in goods and services), making China by far the most important single market for Australian exports.
Trade between Australia and India grew by 24.6 percent per year between 2000 and 2009, making India Australia's tenth-largest two-way trading partner and fifth-largest export market.
Five of Australia's 10 biggest live cattle export ports are in WA - Fremantle, Broome, Wyndham, Geraldton and Port Hedland.
Mainland China remains Tasmania's largest export market with over $644 million in 2012-2013. The United States of America is the second largest export market followed by Taiwan, India, Japan and Malaysia.
The leading export markets for Australian apples in 2013 were Papua New Guinea, UK, Malaysia and Thailand; for pears - New Zealand, Indonesia and Canada.
The key food and fibre industries for Victoria's exports in 2012-13 were grain and dairy accounting for 43% of the total value of food and fibre exports.
Australia is the world's largest coal exporter, with 78% of the coal we mine sent to over 30 countries. The top five destinations for coal from Australia are Japan, China, South Korea, India and Taiwan.
Coal is Australia's second biggest export after iron ore with a value of around $50 billion per annum and the Port of Newcastle is one of the world's biggest coal export hubs shipping 150 mln tonnes last year.
Around 25 million cattle are raised for beef in Australia; about 2/3 of the beef is destined for overseas markets. This makes Australia second only to Brazil in beef exports.
During the 2013 calendar year, almonds became Australia's first horticultural industry to earn more than of $300 million in annual export revenue.
Prior to 2008, the maximum bulk export of all grains in Australia was around 17 million tonnes, but that figure has grown sharply to up to 25 million tonnes during 2011-12, along with around 2.5mt of container exports annually.
In 2012/13 Tasmania grew 86 per cent of all onions exported by Australia in the same year and was responsible for 52 per cent of the nation's cherry exports.
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